Teaching Ancient Civilisations

I am currently teaching Ancient Civilisations, which is great, and a subject I love. So far, we’ve covered Origins of Man, to which one of my students commented it should be Origins of Humankind, and she’s right, and hence that’s how we refer to it in class now. It was interesting to see the reaction from the class when it was discussed we came from one location 70,000 years ago. It made for a lively discussion.

Spartan Warriors Wikipedia

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Today’s Brief…

Today’s post is a brief yet poignant interlude into the usual articles. I was interviewed by two wonderful and lovely ladies and like to introduce them.

Effrosyni Moschoudi, Indie Author with two books published The Necklace of Goddess Athena and The Lady of the Pier. To read the interview please visit Effrosyni’s Blog. I have just begun to follow Effrosyni’s blog and have enjoyed the varied and informative articles she writes. Fun and interesting.

Linnea Tanner, writer and Celtic and Roman historian. I’ve been following Linnea’s blog for a while now and always come away learning something new about the ancient history of Celtic Britain. Apollo’s Raven is a wealth of historical information, well researched and written. Please visit to read the interview. I am looking forward to Linnea’s first book, the same title as her blog.

I do hope you have time to read the interviews and browse the blogs.
Thank you

As always, I love to hear from you.

Accursed Women
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Two Perfect Summer Reads


Free promo 7-11 aug 2014

Today, I’m pleased to present to you Greek author Effrosyni Moschoudi and her books. As of this coming Thursday and for five days, they will be FREE on Amazon; seeing that they are perfect for a summer escape, you may not want to miss out on this opportunity!

Fros messo1 test2 jpg





Effrosyni Moschoudi was born and raised in Athens, Greece. She has a BSc in Computer Science and has worked for large companies for twenty years, mainly in the hotel and airline business. She’s been writing since childhood and lives in a quaint seaside town near Athens with her husband Andy and a naughty cat called Felix.

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Short and to the point

We take a short break from our usual program today. Here’s a word from our sponsor 😀 Author Blog Tour.

Was it my intention to be a writer? In all honesty, no. It happened as a result from a car accident and then a trip to Europe. My talented friend Andrew Hill extended an invitation to talk about what I write and posted his very enlightening and intriguing writing process last week. You can check out his blog here: Andrew Hill 

On with the questions…



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The Man Behind the Wooden Horse

For ten long years’ war raged between the Greeks and Trojans with no end in sight. Each side equally matched, both in valour and skilled fighters. It was the era of the golden age, men with a status of demi-gods and many others favoured by the immortals. The war won with a trick, a ruse which duped the Trojans and sealed their fate. Hektor’s funeral marks the conclusion of the Iliad, there’s no mention of how and who wins the conflict. Yet how it was won has become part of the story’s lore. It is also why many people believe Homer is not the author of both the Iliad and Odyssey. Those who have been following my blog know what my thoughts are and new readers may refer back to the post.

Scenes of the Trojan War Odysseus second from left Antalya Archaeological Museum Wikipedia

Scenes of the Trojan War
Odysseus second from left
Antalya Archaeological Museum

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Greatest Warrior with a Grudge. Never a Good Thing!

It all comes down to fate, whatever a person does or decides there are always consequences. They can be good or bad, I wish for the former but as we all know that depends on the individual. Sometimes it’s a small thing and in other circumstances it is big, so huge it changes the course of events. Why is it fate? We are all destined to certain actions and decisions. We may deviate from the path at some time but somehow the lines of destiny reassert themselves. And so Agamemnon sealed his fate and those of his allies when he chose to take Briseis from Akhilleus.

The Rage of Achilles Giovanni Battista Tiepolo 1757 Wikipedia

The Rage of Achilles
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo 1757

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One Man’s Death, Fatal Repercussions for the Trojans

There are a number of plot twists in the Iliad, causation’s for many key events in the story. Each have a significant role in the final outcome of the story and perhaps one of the more pivotal scenes was the death of Patroklos. It changed the losing team into a winning one and saw the annihilation of a city and its people.

Achilles and the body of Patroclus Nikolai Ge 1855 Wikipedia
Achilles and the body of Patroclus
Nikolai Ge 1855

Who was Patroklos? He was not only a boyhood friend of Akhilleus but also a relative. There’s also the inference they were lovers which was possible as it was common in ancient Greece and much of the ancient world to have same sex relationships. Unlike the movie Troy where the character of Patroklos was younger, he was older than Akhilleus, though it was never mentioned by how much.

He was considered wiser and more level-headed than Akhilleus, which was why Nestor approached Patroklos. He suggested Patroklus should advise Akhilleus to re-join the war and reiterated the words of his father, Menoetius on the day they left to join the allies:

‘My son, Achilles is of nobler birth than you and he is also by far the stronger man. But you are older than he is. It is for you to give sound advice, make suggestions and give him a lead which he will follow to his own advantage.’
Iliad, Book 11, Lines 785-89

While he was a boy, Patroklos killed a youth during a game of dice. How? It was never explained except it was an accident. Dangerous game by the sounds of it! As a consequence his father, brother or first cousin to Peleus Akhilleus’ father, sent Patroklos to live with the king. Both he and Akhilleus were educated together. Patroklos, a prince in his own right, was one of Helen’s suitors and bound by oath to take up arms if something amiss happened.

In Book 16, Patroklos tries to convince Akhilleus to re-join the fight. The Achaeans suffered heavy losses and without Akhilleus were certain to lose. He refuses. However, Patroklos persuades his friend to let him borrow his armour and lead the Myrmidons into the fray. Patroklos and his men charge into the fight, rallying the Greeks, who thought he was Akhilleus. He was a competent warrior and killed many men in the battle including the king of Lycia, Sarpedon who happened to be the son of Zeus. Then he faced Hektor.

‘[Hektor]… stabbed him with his spear in the lower belly, driving the bronze clean through. Patroklos thudded to the ground…’
Iliad, Book 16, Lines 821-822

Menelaus and Meriones lifting Patroclus' corpse on a cart while Odysseus[on right] looks on. National Archaeological Museum Florence Wikipedia
Menelaus and Meriones lifting Patroclus’ corpse on a cart while Odysseus[on right] looks on.
National Archaeological Museum Florence

Patroklos showed great strength of character and virtue, elements which Akhilleus did not possess. The character of Patroklos demonstrated a person didn’t need to be the best warrior, however goodness and integrity was more important.

Thank you for visiting and reading. Hope you enjoyed the post. As always, I look forward to your comments.


Patroclus Ancient Greek Mythology
Patroclus Greek Myth Index
Patroclus Greek Mythology Link 

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Field Doctors in Ancient Warfare

The concept of a physician or medicine man, depending on the culture, has been around since prehistoric times and used both natural and supernatural means to treat patients. The first recorded physician dates back to Egypt (2667-2648 BCE) named Imhotep and the first surgery performed in 2750 BCE. The Egyptians were also the first to write medical texts outlining the disease, diagnosis and treatment. Herodotos makes note in his ‘Histories’ of the specialist treatment by the Egyptians. The Babylonians also had written medical texts dating back to the first half the 2nd millennium BCE. The first field doctors to be mentioned were in Homer’s Iliad, two men each skilled in different medical practices, much like a specialist and a GP today.

Asklepius The Glypotek, Copenhagen Photo by Nina Aldin Thune Wikipedia

The Glypotek, Copenhagen
Photo by Nina Aldin Thune

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